Nigerian Journal of Medical and Dental Education https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme <p>Nigerian Journal of Medical and Dental Education is a collaborative peer reviewed scientific publication of the Network for Oral and Maxillofacial Infections, Oncology and Traumatology in Nigeria<sup>® </sup>with Department of Periodontics &amp; Pure and Applied Dental Oral and Craniofacial Research Society (PADOCRS), Health Sciences Research Group (HESRG), University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State; Community Dental Health Unit of Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Port Harcourt, River State; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bayero University Kano, Kano State and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State.</p> en-US Nigerian Journal of Medical and Dental Education 2714-4127 Radical Prostatectomy for Organ Confined Prostate Cancer in University of Benin Teaching Hospital: A Case Report https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/120 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Early diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the identification of organ confined prostate cancer in Nigeria. Potentially curative treatment by radical prostatectomy was commenced in University of Benin Teaching Hospital with this index case. The objective is to report the index case of radical prostatectomy for organ confined prostate cancer in University of Benin Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Case Description:</strong> Patient presented with lower urinary tract symptoms, clinically benign prostate, and elevated PSA, 21.2ng/ml. Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and staging investigations confirmed organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma. Treatment was by open radical retropubic prostatectomy. The oncological and functional outcomes up to a year later was good.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> With careful patient selection, available expertise and skill, open radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in resource limited settings.</p> SO OSAGHAE JI OFUANI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 34 37 Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rates in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/121 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Salivary dysfunction is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B virus infection. Although the pathophysiology is not fully understood, it has been linked with immune complex sequelae and liver dysfunction. Unstimulated salivary flow rate is an accurate measure of salivary gland functionality. The objective of the study was to determine the association between hepatitis B virus infection and salivary flow rates.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This case-control study included 76 patients diagnosed with hepatitis B virus infection and 48 control participants. Socio-demographics and times of diagnosis for the case group were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and with the aid of patients’ records. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was determined for all participants using the suction method and recorded as volume per time (mls/min). Data was presented using frequencies and proportions, with statistical significance set at p&lt;0.05 while the 95% confidence level was used to construct confidence intervals around estimates.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was no significant difference between the distribution of ages and gender of participants in both groups. The average salivary flow rate of the cases was 0.12mls/min, and was significantly lower (p=0.000) than the control group with a mean value 0.48mls/min. The distribution of salivary flow rate differed significantly across the duration of initial diagnosis (p = 0.007).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study shows a substantial association between hepatitis B virus infection and salivary gland hypofunction, and there appears to be a correlation of the hypofunction with the chronicity of the disease.</p> NE ONYIA M OKOH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 38 43 Development of Ureteroscopic Laser Endopyelotomy for Treatment of Pelvi-Ureteric Junction Obstruction at University of Benin Teaching Hospital: Preliminary Report and Overview of Literature. https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/122 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>&nbsp;Laser endopyelotomy approach to management of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction, PUJO was recently introduced to our hospital as minimally invasive endoscopic option for suitable patients presenting with pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction.</p> <p><strong>Case Description: </strong>The first patient, a 40 years old female presented with chronic left flank pain. Renal tract ultrasound scan, CT Urogram confirmed left PUJO with satisfactory residual renal function. She was treated by laser endopyelotomy and stent insertion. The second patient, 18 years old female presented with chronic bilateral flank pain. Renal ultrasonography, intravenous urogram and renogram confirmed bilateral PUJO worse on right side. She had bilateral endopyelotomy and insertion of stents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The patients preferred minimally invasive endoscopic approach to open pyeloplasty in management of PUJO. The procedures were uncomplicated and initial good outcomes achieved.</p> SO OSAGHAE RO ODUTOLA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 44 50 Knowledge of Caries Preventive Measures for Children among Medical and Dental Students in Benin City https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/123 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the knowledge of caries preventive measures for children among clinical medical and dental students in the University of Benin.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross- sectional study was carried out among medical and dental students of the University of Benin, Nigeria. Respondents were selected using systemic sampling techniques. Data was obtained using a structured self-administered questionnaire. &nbsp;Oral health behaviour among respondents and knowledge of caries preventive measures in children were determined and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. P&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The age of participants varied from 18-30 years with a mean age of 22.6±5 years. The oral health behaviour of most of the respondents was fair (50.0%), while 33.3% and 16.7% had good and poor oral health behaviour respectively. The knowledge of caries preventive measures for children among the respondents, only 22.3% of the respondents had good knowledge while about 49.2% had an average knowledge and 28.4% had a low knowledge.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed that the knowledge of caries preventive measures in children was low among medical and dental students. There is need for a more focused approach to oral health education to ensure the medical and dental students are equipped with sufficient knowledge for their future practice.</p> K Ojie NM Chukwumah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 51 59 Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness about Periodontal Health among Pregnant Women in Benin City https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/124 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the knowledge and awareness about periodontal health among pregnant women presenting at the Antenatal Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross- sessional study was carried out among one hundred and fifty-two pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Respondents were selected using systemic sampling techniques. Data was obtained using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and was analyzed with IBM SPSS version 25.0 and frequency distribution and cross tabulation were computed for categorical variables. Oral health practices, knowledge and awareness of periodontal health were determined. Ethical approval was obtained for this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of one hundred and fifty-two women were included in the study. The age of participants varied from 22 - 44 years, with mean age of 31.8 ± 5 years. About two-thirds (63.8%), of the women were skilled workers while those with a tertiary level of education were 73.7%. About 54.6% of the respondents were in their third trimester. Majorly of the respondents (78.8%) had never visited a dentist. Majority of the respondents (71.1%), had fair oral health practice, while 22.4% of them had good knowledge about periodontal diseases. A high level of awareness about oral health and periodontal diseases was reported by 18.5% of the respondents. There was a significant association between education and oral health practice (P = 0.203).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has shown that the awareness level of periodontal health among the pregnant women is low irrespective of the fact that majority of them had fair oral health practice and average knowledge of periodontal health.</p> MA OKOROMU AO EHIZELE Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 60 69 Assessment of Intercanine and Intermolar Width of Untreated Orthodontic Patients with Crowded and Uncrowded dentitions in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/125 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the intercanine (IC) and intermolar (IM) widths of orthodontic patients with crowded and uncrowded dentitions in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross sectional study. Fifty (50) pairs of dental casts of 50 (Fifty) untreated orthodontic patients were selected and classified using Angle’s method. Using a digital caliper (European Directive ROHS 2002/95/CE), lingual arch widths measurements was carried out for first permanent canines and molars of each arch (maxillary and mandibular). The arch width measurements were carried out according to the method described by McDougall et al in 1982. Data was computed and analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0 software. P values at &lt;0.05 was set as significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty dental casts with crowded dentition and fifty dentals with uncrowded dentition were evaluated. Each participant had a maxillary and a mandibular cast. The mean age of study population was 21.72±2.52 years. The mean maxillary IC width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of female population was 27.13±1.39 mm and 29.31±4.17 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05). The mean maxillary IM width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of female population was 37.73±2.30 mm and 38.07±4.89 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05). The mean maxillary IC width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of male population was 26.92±3.05 mm and 27.76±2.29 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05). The mean maxillary IM width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of male population was 37.11±4.13 mm and 38.47±1.48 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p>The mean mandibular IC width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of female population was 20.48±2.44 mm and 26.67±4.81 mm respectively(P&lt;0.05). The mean mandibular IM width in the crowded and uncrowded dentition of female population was 33.35±2.57 mm and it was 36.89±4.98 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05). The mean mandibular IC width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of male population was 21.54±2.47 mm and 26.11±5.43 mm I respectively(P&lt;0.05). The mean mandibular IM width in crowded and uncrowded dentition of male population was 33.49±2.34 mm and 36.44±5.17 mm respectively (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study recorded higher values of IC and IM widths in the maxillary and mandibular arch of uncrowded dentitions of male and female populations when compared to the crowded dentitions. The difference was statistically significant in the male and female IC width recorded in the mandibular arch only</p> DJ UMEANO IN IZE-IYAMU NJ OTAREN Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 70 77 Failed Osteosynthesis: Responsible factors, management and Its Outcome https://publications.nomiot.com.ng/index.php/njdme/article/view/126 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To examine the factors responsible for implant failures and the management outcomes in our practice</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The data of patients with failed osteosynthesis from January 2018 to December 2020 was analyzed. Information on socio-demographics, main presenting complaint, patients’ clinical features, indications for osteosynthesis, duration from surgery, bone involved, imaging features, type of implant used, factors responsible for implant failures, assessment of the challenges of Management and Management outcomes were retrieved from the patients’ case files at medical record department of the hospitals. Data was subjected to analysis with SPSS software. Patient with incomplete documentations were excluded. The inclusion criteria include all patients diagnosed with failed osteosynthesis, who were able to provide history or had reliable informant(s) to provide history and those with detailed medical reports from other hospitals where the osteosynthesis was done.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Fifty-three patients studied, out of which 46 (86.8%) males and 7 (13.2%) females in the age group of 7-69 years with a mean age of 37.5 years. Fresh fracture was the highest (58.5%) indication for the surgery that failed. The other indications were malunion (20.8%), non-union (14%) and pathological fracture (7.5%).&nbsp; All the patients had operation with 32.1% of them had implant removal alone because revision was not necessary, 24.5% had revision alone while the rest (43.4%) had exchanged implant with a biologically and biomechanically more superior implants. The study revealed that many (85%) had satisfactory results as revision surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed non-compliance with post-operative protocols as the commonest causes (28.3%) of failed implants followed by re-trauma (17%) and non-union (17%) respectively while femur is the commonest (45.3%) bone with failed implant. Many (65%) of the patients presented with combination of symptoms which necessitated revision osteosynthesis with a superior implant. Even though, the management of these patients were challenging but many (85%) had satisfactory results. Orthopaedic surgeons are encouraged to review the principles to individualized the patient’s management protocols and risk of implant failure with adequate measure to prevent&nbsp;</p> LO AJIBOYE CR NWASHILI SO OLAREWAJU Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 2 77 83