Nigerian Journal of Dental Sciences <p>Nigerian Journal of Dental Sciences is a collaborative peer reviewed scientific publication of the Network for Oral and Maxillofacial Infections, Oncology and Traumatology in Nigeria<sup>®</sup> with Department of Periodontics &amp; Pure and Applied Dental Oral and Craniofacial Research Society (PADOCRS), University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Community Dental Health Unit of Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Port Harcourt, River State, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Bayero University Kano, Kano State and Department of Child Dental Health, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State.</p> <p>Two issues of Nigerian Journal of Dental Sciences <em>(NJDS) are published </em>annually covering January-June and July-December.</p> en-US Nigerian Journal of Dental Sciences 2636-4956 Oral Habit as Assault to Aesthetic Dentofacial Appearance: Lessons for Stakeholders <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Habit is learned, reflexive, and repetitive behaviour displayed by an individual. When this learned pattern of behaviour involves the contraction of the musculature around the oral region is termed oral habit. Examples of oral habits are digit sucking, tongue thrusting, habitual mouth breathing and biting habits. Persistent oral habit can be detrimental to the normal developmental process of the dentofacial complex. The dentofacial complex contributes to the development the occlusion, acceptable aesthetic appearance and functionality of the stomathognathic system. The objective of this study was to review the impact of oral habit on the aesthetics of the dentofacial complex. Secondly, to emphasize the various roles of stakeholders in dealing with this habit.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Results: </strong>The appearances of the macro-, mini- and micro-aesthetic complexes were shown to be affected by the continuous indulgence in oral habits. Children who indulge in habitual mouth breathing and tongue thrusting are prone to increased facial height while incompetent lip and increased overjet can be seen among those involved in mentalis lip habit. Constriction of the buccal transverse maxillary dimension, anterior open bite and proclined maxillary incisors are seen among those involved in digit habits. Stakeholders’ roles like improved awareness and early dental visits by parents/caregivers, professional inter-disciplinary collaborations and compliance to policies enacted by government agencies would go a long way in preventing the negative impact of oral habits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is evident that persistent oral habits have adverse effects on the aesthetic appearance of the dentofacial complex. A combined effort among stakeholders in the health sectors will be the best approach if oral habit is to be tackled effectively.</p> Osaronse. Anthony AGHIMIEN Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 6 1 1 9 Oral Health Related Quality of Life of Patients on Fixed and Removable Orthodontic Appliances <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Quality of life is defined as the discrepancy between our expectations and experiences. In the field of orthodontics, there is a longstanding recognition that malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies can produce immense physical, social and psychological upset. The study aimed at assessing the age, sex and socioeconomic status of patients using fixed and removable orthodontic appliances evaluating the possible change in their quality of life during fixed or removable appliance orthodontic therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among patients attending the Orthodontic Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State who were on fixed and removable appliances for various orthodontic reasons. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 questionnaire was used for data collection and was self-administered. The questionnaires were administered at baseline and two months into treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most of the study participants were in the 16-20 years old age group (44.4%), females made up (53.5%) and most participants were of the low socioeconomic status (63.6%). Participants aged 10 years and below had more of physical pain while those within the 11-15 years age group had more of psychological and social disability. The 26-30 years age group had more functional limitation and psychological discomfort while participants aged 30 years and above experienced more handicap due to the presence of orthodontic appliance in the mouth. More males had functional limitation and social disability while females had physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability and psychological disability. Participants of the low socioeconomic status had more psychological disability, social disability and handicap. Participants of the middle socioeconomic group had more functional limitation, physical pain, psychological discomfort and physical disability due to the presence of orthodontic appliance in the mouth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The general OHIP-14 score reduced when comparing the score at baseline of orthodontic treatment to the score during treatment. Therefore, the oral health related quality of life of the participants improved as orthodontic treatment progressed.</p> Precious E. OJEHANON Nneka M. CHUKWUMAH Alice A. UMWENI Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 6 1 10 16 Prevalence and Pattern of Low Oxygen Saturation among Dental Patients during Covid-19 Pandemic in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Low oxygen saturation is widely reported to be associated with Covid-19 infections but data on this is scarce in our environment. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence and pattern of low oxygen saturation among dental patients during covid-19 pandemic in a Nigerian tertiary hospital</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study in the department of oral diagnosis in a Nigerian tertiary hospital from January to March 2021.&nbsp; The demographic data collected were age, gender, religion, and occupation; others were level of education and place of residence. The clinical data collected were previous history of Covid -19 infection, medical condition, use of facemask, and dental condition. Others were oxygen saturation level and referred department. All analysis was performed with SPSS software version 24. &nbsp;A P-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total number of 150 patients were recruited in this study. Their age range was 18 -85 years with a mean age of 35.2±15.9 years. There were more males compared to females given a male to female ratio was 1.1: 1.&nbsp; Generalised chronic marginal gingivitis was the most (40.0%) prevalent dental conditions and this was followed (15.3%) by acute apical periodontitis. Most (42.0%) of the patients were referred to the department of periodontics and this was followed (35.3%) by the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Only 10 patients had low oxygen saturation given a prevalence of 6.2%. All the demographic variables were not significantly associated with low oxygen saturation (P&gt;0.05). Also, all the clinical variables studied were not statistically significant with low oxygen saturation (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion:&nbsp; The prevalence of low oxygen saturation among dental patients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital was unremarkable. There was no association between low oxygen saturation and demographic and clinical variables of the dental patients</p> Irene OGBEBOR Benlance Ekaniyere EDETANLEN Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 6 1 17 22 Use of Smartphones and Its Perception in the Recording and Distribution of Medical Images among Dental Practitioners <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The need for prompt acquisition and distribution of data and information is a rapidly developing industry. Smartphones has played a huge role in this aspect, and it has rapidly evolved in the medical profession. This has the capacity to improve health care, but comes with specific ethical and medico-legal considerations that include issues of confidentiality, privacy and policy control. The objective of the study was to quantitatively assess the use of smartphones in a clinical setting along with their perception regarding policies, practice and patient care.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study design was utilized for the study among dental surgeon in the University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Data was collected using a semi-administered questionnaire and was tabulated and analyzed using the statistical package for IBM SPSS version 24.0 and quantitative tables were expressed as frequencies and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Forty-six responses were received. Most respondents were from the Oral surgery discipline, followed by Paedodontics, then Restorative dentistry. Ninety-seven percent admitted to taking medical images on their smartphones, yet no consent as obtained in almost a quarter (19.6%). When consent was taken, it was predominantly verbal, but only documented 32.6% of the time. Of those who took medical images, 97.8% stored them in the personal device and 77.8% shared identifiable images with someone else, mostly for input from another clinician. About six percent were aware that an institutional policy existed, but none had read the policy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dental surgery is a highly visual field in which practice is complemented by the use of photographic images for patient care and educational purposes. Among Dental surgeons, personal smartphones are regularly being used to photograph the clinical state of a patient. Whilst the use of smartphones in a hospital setting is inevitable, the results obtained highlight issues related to privacy, confidentiality and patient care. This study will enable discussion and formulation of an evidence-based hospital policy.</p> Uwa S. OSARENKHOE Peter E. EGBOR Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 6 1 23 27