Nigerian Journal of Research in Orofacial Infections & Oncology <p>Nigerian Journal of Research in Orofacial Infections and Oncology (NJROIO) is a collaborative peer-reviewed journal published by the Network for Oral and Maxillofacial Infection, Oncology and Traumatology in Nigeria<sup>®</sup> <sup> </sup>with Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Periodontics &amp; Health Sciences Research Group, University of Benin, Benin-City, Edo State; Community Health Unit, Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State;, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bayero University Kano, Kano StaThis Journal will publish articles in all aspects of Orofacial Infections and Oncology for healthcare and allied professionals as well as students</p> en-US Nigerian Journal of Research in Orofacial Infections & Oncology 2705-3091 Periodontal Status of Patients with Mandibular Anterior Crowding <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the periodontal status among patients with mandibular anterior crowding and to determine the severity of periodontal diseases among patients with different severity of crowding.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The cross-sectional study was conducted among patients aged 18 and 40 years attending the Periodontology clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital with mandibular anterior crowding between April and July 2018. The controls group, without mandibular anterior crowding, were also selected. Malocclusion was assessed using Occlusion Feature Index by Poulton and Aaronson (1961), with a modification, while gingival status and oral hygiene was assessed with Sulcular Bleeding Index by Muhlemann and Son (1971) and Plaque Index by Loe and Silness (1964).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 36 patients with mandibular anterior crowding and 36 patients without crowding participated in this study. Three-quarter 27 (75.0%) of patients with crowding had poor oral hygiene and about half 19 (52.8%) of those without crowding had poor oral hygiene. Mean sulcular bleeding score and mean plaque score were significantly higher in participants with crowding than those without crowding. There was statistically insignificant increase in mean plaque score and mean sulcular bleeding score with corresponding increase in pattern of crowding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mandibular anterior crowding was associated with poorer oral hygiene assessed with plaque index and worse gingival status assessed with sulcular bleeding index. Severe crowding was seen to lead to poorer oral hygiene and higher periodontal diseases. Optimizing periodontal health will be a ranked reason for orthodontic correction of mandibular anterior crowding</p> Agnes O. UMOH Oluwatomisin David RAPHAEL Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 3 1 1 6 Histopathologic Pattern of Primary Head and Neck Cancers in Nigerian Tertiary Center <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Head and neck cancers (HNCs) is a major health challenge globally and its incidence in Nigeria is poorly understood. The objective of the study was to evaluate the histologic pattern of HNC in a tertiary hospital in this region.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study is a 6 year (2014-2019) retrospective descriptive study of age, gender, topography and histological type variation using histopathology reports of patients with diagnosis of HNCs in Delta State University Teaching Hospital (DELSUTH).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Sixty-seven HNCs, constituting 10% of hospital cancer cases, were analyzed from 41 males and 26 females, with a mean age of 41.93 years, age range of 1-85 years and rate of 9-13 cases/year. Case distribution in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th decades were 10.5%, 1.5%, 16.4%, 20.9%, 4.5%, 23.9%, 13.4%, 6.0% and 3.0% respectively. The upper digestive tract, the larynx, jaws, eye, upper airways, salivary glands, ear, thyroid, lymph nodes and skin were the sites in 7.5%, 1.5%, 7.5%, 7.5%, 13.4%, 19.4%, 1.5%, 15%, 17.9% and 9.0% of the cases respectively. Carcinoma, lymphoma, blastoma and sarcomas accounted for 65.7%, 20.9%, 7.5% and 6.0% of the cases respectively. The more common histological types are adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.5%), retinoblastoma (7.5%), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (10.5%), papillary carcinoma (10.5%), squamous cell carcinoma (15.0%) and NHL (16.4%). The peak age group for carcinoma, lymphoma, blastoma and sarcoma were the 6th, 7th, 1st and 4th decades of life respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> HNCs are relatively common with more male sufferers. They are mostly carcinomas, most commonly in salivary glands with Squamous cell cancer being the most common histological type. There is need for policy makers and hospital management to prioritize HNC prevention and management.</p> Jude Obiora UCHENDU Nekwu Emmanuel OKOLUGBO Okiemute Mabel ETETEFIA Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 3 1 7 15 Factors Influencing Dental Caries Status among Undergraduate Dental Students in Selected Nigerian Universities <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Dental caries is the most common dental disease. Factors influencing dental caries status approximate the determinants of oral health status. Today’s dental students will provide dental services in the future and will be responsible for the public’s oral health education and status. Hence the objective of this study was to identify the factors influencing dental caries status among undergraduate dental students in Nigerian Universities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a cross sectional survey involving the use of a multi-stage sampling technique to select 812 undergraduate dental students from six institutions. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the students were collected using a well-structured questionnaire. The DMFT index was used to assess the dental caries status. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and binary logistic regression at 5% level of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 22.0±3.0 years. The overall prevalence of dental caries was 24%. The DMFT range was 0.0 – 8.0 with median DMFT score of 0.0. The students’ dental caries status was influenced by location of study (p&lt;0.0001), and parents’ highest educational level (p&lt;0.05). Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife students were 3 times less likely to have dental caries compared to Bayero University, Kano students (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15 – 0.76). Participants whose fathers had no formal education were 13 times more likely to have dental caries compared to participants whose fathers had tertiary education (OR = 13.308, 95% CI: 2.25 – 78.87).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The dental caries status of the dental students was good, but bad oral health practices are likely to worsen it. As part of their curriculum therefore, dental students should start learning about preventive aspects of oral health as early as their first undergraduate year.</p> Lawrence O IGBINOSA Osareniye OSAYANDE Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 3 1 16 23 Necrotizing Fasciitis initially Managed as Cellulitis: A Report of Two Cases <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To report two cases of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis which were initially managed as rapidly spreading cellulitis.</p> <p><strong>Case Description: </strong>These two cases of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis presented in our clinic with features of rapidly spreading cellulitis of odontogenic origin. Incision and drainage was done and patients presented after 48 hours with necrotic tissue. Diagnosis of cervicofacial necrotizing cellulitis was made and aggressive debridement of necrotic tissue was carried out.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis can be difficult when one is unfamiliar with the condition which can cause a delay in treatment. This may be compounded by the presenting symptoms which are nonspecific and may mimic cellulitis. An index of suspicion must be retained in all cases of cellulitis.</p> Ifueko P. OSAGHAE Osamwonyi C. ERIAMIATOR Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 3 1 24 29 Analysis of 215 Cases of Ludwig’s Angina: A Retrospective Study at the Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Yobe State <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To examine cases of Ludwig’s angina managed at Federal Medical Centre, Nguru, Yobe State.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 215 patient’s case files of ages between 8 to 80 years who were diagnosed and treated of Ludwig’s angina, were analyzed retrospectively. The information collated include demographic characteristics, causes, signs and symptoms at presentation, and treatment. Also recorded were patient’s baseline laboratory investigations. Patients with predisposing factors and complications arising from the disorder during their hospital stay were also documented. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 20.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was a steady increase number of Ludwig’s angina cases managed between 2014 to 2019. Ludwig’s angina was predominant among uneducated individuals and those above 35 years. The mean age of affected individuals was 45.38 years. More females 118 (54.88%) than males 97 (45.12%) were affected giving male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Odontogenic infection accounted for more than 80% of cases. Anaemia and diabetes mellitus were the main comorbid conditions among the patients. Necrotizing fasciitis, medianstitis and septicaemina were the leading complications. Mortality rate was 3%</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Early detection of Ludwig’s angina followed by prompt diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotics, as well as possible surgical intervention in the course of management remain the key to reducing morality and severe morbidity.</p> Thomas OWOBU Babatude Oludare FAKUADE Uchenna Kelvin OMEJE Shehu Adamu SULAIMAN Oba Onisoman AZAH Copyright (c) 2020 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 3 1 30 36